The 2009 Port State Measures Agreement (PSMA) was the first legally binding international instrument to empower port States to deny foreign vessels suspected of having engaged in illegal,

unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing from using their ports and to land catches. This paper builds upon previous work analyzing 2020 AIS data to rank fishing ports globally and assessing evolving port State risk and port States performance in PSMA implementation.

2023 IUU Safe havens or PSMA ports